Orthopaedia is produced by The Codman Group (a 503C IRS-approved public charity) in collaboration with the United States Bone and Joint Initiative and the Community of Musculoskeletal Educators. Orthopaedia aims to serve as a free, up-to-date, peer-reviewed open educational resource for students and practitioners, thereby improving the welfare of patients.
Please visit http://www.orthopaedia.com for the most current version of this text. At the website, you will also find its sister publications covering Hand and Foot & Ankle disorders, and others as they become available.
President, The Codman Group
Joseph Bernstein, MD, FACS
Stephen J. Pinney, MD, MEd, FRCS(C)
Christian Veillette, MD, FRCS(C)
Orthopaedia Series Editors